The capacitors chronicle
Newton studied the electrostatic attraction of glass.
Observation from Gray on increasing electric shock by a waterfilled glass bowl.
Ewald Georg von Kleist, a canon in Camin (Pomeranin) got a strong electrical shock during experiments with waterfilled bottles when he held it with wet hand and learned the amplification of this assembly.
In Leyden Cunaeus experimented with his "gain-bottle" (a bottle inside and outside glazed with metal. (well known as bottle of Leyden)). Benjamin Franklin invented the after him named "Franklin Board".
Wilcke describes the "Electrophor" for storing electrostatic charges.
Cavendish investigates the influence on the medium capacitance of a capacitor.
Volta uses a capacitance change and an electroscope for detection of small charges. He uses the word "capacitor" at first time.
Faraday studied on the dielectrical polarization and created the definition dielectricum" in order to describe the medium between the both plates of a capacitor.
R. Kohlrausch published in "Poggendorfs Annalen" studies about the first continuous changeable capacitor. It was a straight-line-capacitance capacitor with air-dielectricum and variable distance. Today it is known as Kohlrausch-capacitor.
W. Thomson published his theory about the discharging of a capacitor.
R. Kohlrausch investigated the "electrical residue".
Weathstone monitored a polarization effect at aluminum in electrolytes.
Ludwig Boltzmann published measurements of dielectric constants.
Ducretet found out that aluminum in an electrolytic cell with acidulated water as electrolyte creates an insulated surface which blocks the current in one direction.
Cl. Maxwell describes for the first time a guard- ring capacitor in his publication "Treatise on Electronicity and Magnetism".
Within two British patent-specifications attention is invited to the practicability of electrolyte capacitors.
A German patent was given for an electrolytic capacitor with aluminum electrodes and alcaline or neutral electrolytes.
Adolf Koepsel reports about variable air capacitors. In the "Physikalische Zeitschrift" was published a dissertation from F. Harms about a standard air capacitors with fixed standard capacitance. Gerdien describes an adjustable cylinder capacitor.
E. Giebe describes in the "Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde" standard air capacitors which later on were known as standard of Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstallt.
In portable communication-equipments layer-capacitors with mica or glass as dielectricum were common.
Richard Jahre founded his company and begun with the professional production of mica capacitors.